Tag Archive for: lungcancer

Some driver RET mutations are not observed in Indian cancers

The impact of two driver mutations of RET gene, V804M/L and S891A, on Thyroid cancer was described recently by Pichardo et al in JAMA Otolaryngology, 2023. In a population screening, 75 people were identified to have 2 Pathogenic or Likely Pathogenic (P/LP) germline variants of the RET gene. 20 out of these 75 patients chose to undergo prophylactic thyroidectomy even though they did not have any symptoms of cancer. After surgery, pathological analysis of their tissue detected the growth of medullary or papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in 12 and 2 patients respectively, i.e., 70% of patients with these 2 mutations had been harboring cancer unknowingly!
We examined the presence of these 2 RET variants in Sapien’s 61 Indian thyroid cancer samples profiled in the OncoMineDx panel by ThermoFisher. P/LP mutations were seen in 4 cases, all below the age of 40. Three cases were PTCs and 1 Follicular, with an overall percentage of 6%. The variants detected were V804M/L (3 cases) and C618Y (1 case, Follicular). No case of S891A mutation was detected.
We also checked for RET mutations in our genetically profiled lung cancers (103 cases) where 28 cases had SNVs with 5 cases of V804M, and 1 case had a fusion. No case of S891A was observed. Similarly, among 449 breast cancers, 280 CRCs, 47 gliomas and few cases each of endometrium, urinary bladder and prostate cancers that have been genetically profiled, many cases of V804M/L and other P/LP RET mutations were observed but none of S891A.

Genetic Counselling an Personalized Medicine conference in Hyderabad

Delighted to be a part of 8th Annual BGCI #conference held at the #University of Hyderabad from July 7th to 9th, 2023 where Rakesh Sharma, PhD and Madhuri R presented posters titled “Molecular landscape of #lung adenocarcinoma in India for personalizing therapy” and “Driver gene alterations in EGFR and IDH1 are mutually exclusive in Indian Gliomas”.

Jugnu Jain and Kalpana Kannabiran were invited by Dr Q. Annie Hasan to chair the session on “Psychosocial #ethical and legal issues in #genetics and #genomics ” including panelists Dhavendra kumar Mahati Chittem Saveetha Meganathan, Kelly Ormond and Peter Abad.
Reena Trivedi Vaishnavi Suresh helped put the panel together.

It was an enriching experience, filled with insightful presentations and discussions.

HER2 Oncogenic mutations and amplifications are common across many Indian solid tumors

Until recently, HER2 (or ErbB2) targeting drugs were only approved for HER2-amplified breast & gastric cancers. FDA has now granted accelerated approval for trastuzumab or Enhertu to treat lung cancer patients bearing activating HER2 mutations. We analyzed our data of ~1000 solid cancer cases generated using the OncomineTM Dx NGS panel to determine the pattern of ERBB2 amplification vs. mutations. We see that in some cancers, amplifications are more common (breast, gastric, endometrial cancers) but in others, activating mutations are more common (colorectal, lung, thyroid and gliomas) with the most common mutation being V842I in Indian samples. Molecular insights gained from such NGS analysis can hopefully improve precision medicine by expanding the use of approved HER2-targeting drugs for colorectal, endometrial, gliomas, thyroid and other cancer patients that are likely to benefit from them.

Building Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Data for Lung Cancer in India

Sapien is curating real world data for the lung cancer cases in the biobank. While 90-95% of our NSCLC samples are biopsies which are mostly exhausted in patient diagnosis and subsequent clinical #biomarker evaluation, the resection samples are being characterized genomically in Oncomine panel to correlate the demographic, diagnostic, treatment and outcomes data with genetic mutations.
The first of such 48 cases showed a very high number of SNVs (479), CNVs (5), Fusions (6) and indels (14). Highest number of mutations were observed in KEAP1 (43.2% of all mutations), followed by STK11 (31.5% of all mutations).

KRAS mutations in Breast cancer may be treatable

For decades, mutations in #KRAS have been known to cause cancers in multiple organs and the gene KRAS itself was considered ‘undruggable’. Of the many mutations, KRAS-G12C is known to occur in nearly 13% of #NSCLC cases. There were no known treatments that can target KRAS-G12C mutation until recently. May 2021 heralded the #fdaapproval of Sotorasib, granted to #amgen, for treatment of #lungcancer with the G12C mutation in KRAS. Exciting results showed a reduction in tumour burden in more than 37% of the trial participants. This paves the way for testing the efficacy of the drug in multiple other cancers harbouring this driver mutation.
Our data identified nearly 7.8% of breast cancer #FFPE samples bearing the KRAS-G12C mutation, bringing hope of this #drug to people with #breastcancer.

1st August – World Lung Cancer Day – Focusing on Treatment for Lung Cancer

In recognition of #WorldLungCancerDay, It is important for everyone to learn about the #riskfactors for Lung cancer along with the importance of #earlydiagnosis through #screening and timely treatment to decrease #mortality.

In cancer care, different types of doctors often work together to create a patient’s overall treatment plan that combines different types of treatments. This is called a multidisciplinary team.

There are 5 main treatment options : i) Surgery, ii) #Radiationtherapy, iii) #Chemotherapy, iv) Targeted therapy   v) #Immunotherapy

#Surgery includes #Lobectomy, Wedge resection, Segmentectomy, #Pneumonectomy.

#Chemotherapy is the use of #drugs to destroy cancer cells, usually by keeping the cancer cells from growing, dividing, and making more cells. It has been shown to improve both the length and quality of life for people with lung cancer of all stages. Targeted therapy is a #treatment that targets the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells and limits damage to healthy cells. Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body’s natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses material made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.