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Mutations in Lung Cancer Driving Targeted Therapy

In recent years, personalized medicine has begun to bring new hope to people with lung cancer, especially non-small cell lung cancer. Personalized medicine involves looking at the cells obtained from a biopsy to see if there are any genetic mutations — changes in your genes — that could be linked to the type of cancer you have. Because certain chemotherapy drugs are either more or less effective than others against tumors with specific mutations, molecular analysis of your tumor, also called genomic testing, can help determine which therapies will be most likely to benefit you. The most common genetic changes that are tested for in lung cancer are in the genes EGFR, ALK, ROS, PDL 1 and KRAS.

Lung Cancer Surgeries – A rare route of hope

Treatment options and recommendations for lung cancer depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer, possible side effects, and the patient’s preferences and overall health. There are 5 main ways to treat lung cancer : Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted therapy, Immunotherapy. The goal of surgery is to completely remove the lung tumor and the nearby lymph nodes. The following types of surgery may be used in non small cell lung cancer, aka NSCLC: Lobectomy, A wedge resection, Segmentectomy, Pneumonectomy.

Metastatic Lung Cancer-Finding cure starts with awareness

Having lung cancer or a history of lung cancer, is the cause for lung cancer metastases. Cancer that metastasizes to the lungs is a life-threatening condition that develops when cancer in another area of the body (primary organ such as breast), spreads to the lung. Prevention of metastatic lung cancer can be done by avoiding the risk factors of primary lung cancer such as smoking or chewing tobacco, or prompt and successful treatment of your primary cancer. Awareness, early detection and timely treatment are vital for preventing the spread of lung cancer.

October is Ovarian cancer awareness month also

All female cancers are not PINK. Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women worldwide. In India, it is the 3rd leading site of cancer in women. Ovarian cancer is usually diagnosed at late stages, hence disease-free and long term survival is low. This month is devoted to raising awareness for breast and ovarian cancers and get them diagnosed at an early stage to improve treatment outcomes.

The largest category of breast cancers are hormone receptor (HR) positive. These comprise 55-60% of all breast cancers globally as well as in India. Unlike triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), HR positive breast cancers respond well to personalized treatment with newer drugs and have a high chance of successful treatment and long-term survival even in advanced stages. Hence it is important to get them diagnosed and typed for HR positivity early on and tailor the treatment for each patient.

Lymphomas are cancers that develop in the lymphatic system. Typical symptoms start with fever, swelling of some lymph nodes, weight loss, tiredness. The affected lymph nodes could be in the neck, armpit, groin, tonsils, stomach, small intestine. Once a cancer begins in one part of the lymphatic system, it can spread rapidly to other lymph nodes so early diagnosis is important. Diagnosis is done by PET or CT scan and/or biopsy, as suggested by a doctor. The incidence of lymphomas is ~5-7% among all childhood cancers. It is 2-3 time more common in boys than in girls. In India, lymphoma was reported to be the 2nd most common cancer in young boys.

 

Resources:   https://www.worldchildcancer.org/, https://www.indiancancersociety.org/, https://www.acco.org/childhood-lymphomas/, https://www.childrenwithcancer.org.uk/, https://curechildhoodcancer.org/, https://lymphoma-action.org.uk/types-lymphoma-lymphoma-children-and-young-people/lymphoma-children

Kidney cancer rarely affects children. The most common one is Wilms’ tumor, also called nephroblastoma, that accounts for up to 95% of childhood kidney cancers, with most children being below the age of 5 years. It is a fast growing tumor that can spread (metastasize). It is usually treated by surgery, followed by radiation and chemotherapy. Commonly used chemo drugs are doxorubicin, vincristine and actinomycin D. Overall survival rates tend to be high (>90%), with favourable histopathology diagnosis and timely treatment.

 

https://www.indiacancersurgerysite.com/wilms-tumor-treatment-india.html